DeltaG® is the world's first commercially available Ketone Ester.

Operating at a cellular level, DeltaG® provides an alternative source of energy in the form of ketone bodies which break down slowly to provide sustained energy release over several hours. Glucose stores are set aside and used later, enabling endurance athletes to go farther faster.

DeltaG® was developed by TdeltaS®, an Oxford University spin-out, based on pioneering work by Professor Kieran Clarke and Dr. Richard Veech (NIH).
On-Demand Deep Ketosis
in a Bottle
Designed as a superfuel for serious athletes, each pocket-sized bottle of HVMN Ketone contains a full single serving of 25g pure ΔG™ Ketone Ester. PREORDER
How it works

When not eating or when on a 'ketogenic' diet, our bodies produce natural chemicals known as ketone bodies. In extreme conditions - such as during periods of prolonged fasting, starvation or extreme exercise - the body 'burns' fatty acids that come from fat stores, because carbohydrate is not available. As a result, the liver turns the fatty acids into ketone bodies, so the levels of ketones rise significantly in the bloodstream to be used as ‘instant’ fuel.

Quite distinct from other food groups - proteins, carbohydrates and fats - these ketone bodies are an extremely efficient form of food that is used very rapidly by most organs in the body. Indeed, the brain can only make direct use of two nutritional substances: ketone bodies and glucose.

Ketone bodies are thus a valuable energy source for many organs in the body that provide an effective means of increasing metabolic efficiency. Furthermore, ketogenic diets or coconut oil (medium chain triglycerides) that stimulate increased ketone body levels in the bloodstream are used by a number of well-known endurance sports people, especially marathon runners.
Ketone Ester Metabolism
DeltaG® is hydrolysed in the small intestine by nonspecific gut esterases, which cleave it into ᴅ-β-hydroxybutyrate (ᴅ-βHB) and (R)-1,3-butanediol. Both metabolites are absorbed into the portal circulation, with butanediol undergoing first-pass metabolism in the liver to form ᴅ-βHB. ᴅ-βHB is subsequently released into the circulating blood, to be transported into muscle cytosol and mitochondria via the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs).

Glucose is transported across the sarcolemma by GLUTs, and FFAs are transported by the FAT/CD36 transporters. Once inside the mitochondrial matrix, all substrates are metabolized to acetyl-CoA and oxidized in the TCA cycle.
What We've Done

Although they occur naturally in the body, ketone bodies are not found in meaningful quantities in any existing food or diet. Through the pioneering work of Professor Kieran Clarke and Dr Richard Veech, TΔS® has succeeded for the first time in identifying and producing a specific and proprietary precursor of ketone bodies, a ketone ester called ΔG®. ΔG® has formulated into a sports drink that elevates the levels of ketone bodies available to the brain and skeletal muscle.

ΔG® is the first in a new group of nutraceutical food products with the exciting potential to enhance physical performance and help muscle recovery. Operating at cellular level within the body, ΔG® is a proprietary ketone ester that breaks down slowly in the body to provide sustained energy release over several hours.

In a manufacturing process that is already protected by worldwide patents, TΔS® uses a proprietary process to transform the body`s natural ketone, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, into a stable, benign ester that is suitable as a food in its own right.

Already demonstrated to enhance physical performance and slow glycogen loss in rats and humans, ΔG® shows immense potential to provide nutritional effects in a wide range of endurance sports. It has also been shown to be safe during in vivo studies conducted on both sides of the Atlantic.

Professor Kieran Clarke

Kieran is Professor of Physiological Biochemistry at the University of Oxford, where she has been since 1991. Prior to this appointment, she was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University Medical School and a Group Leader at the National Research Council and lecturer in the Department of Physiology at Ottawa University in Canada.

Dr. Richard Veech

Richard is Chief of the Laboratory of Metabolic Control at the NIH, where he has been since 1969. He studied medicine at Harvard University and obtained his DPhil degree in the Laboratory of the Nobel Laureate, Sir Hans Krebs at the University of Oxford between 1966 and 1969.

Our Research

Clarke K, Tchabanenko K, Pawlosky R, Carter E, Knight NS, Murray AJ, Cochlin LE, King MT, Wong AW, Roberts A, Robertson J, Veech RL. Oral 28-day and developmental toxicity studies of (r)-3-hydroxybutyl (r)-3-hydroxybutyrate. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012; 63: 196-208.

Clarke K, Tchabanenko K, Pawlosky R, Carter E, Todd King M, Musa-Veloso K, Ho M, Roberts A, Robertson J, VanItallie TB, Veech RL. Kinetics, safety and tolerability of (r)-3-hydroxybutyl (r)-3-hydroxybutyrate in healthy adult subjects. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012; 63: 401-408.

Cox PJ, Kirk T, Ashmore T, Willerton K, Evans R, Smith A, Murray AJ, Stubbs B, West J, McLure SW, King MT, Dodd MS, Holloway C, Neubauer S, Drawer S, Veech RL, Griffin JL and Clarke K. Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes. Cell Metab. 2016; 24: 256-268.

Holdsworth DA, Cox PJ, Kirk T, Stradling H, Impey SG, Clarke K. A ketone ester drink increases post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017; 49: 1789-1795.

Kashiwaya Y, Bergman C, Lee JH, Wan R, King MT, Mughal MR, Okun E, Clarke K, Mattson MP, Veech RL. A ketone ester diet exhibits anxiolytic and cognition-sparing properties, and lessens amyloid and tau pathologies in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2013; 34: 1530-1539.

Kashiwaya Y, Pawlosky R, Markis W, King MT, Bergman C, Srivastava S, Murray A, Clarke K, Veech RL. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar rat. J Biol Chem. 2010; 285: 25950-25956.

Kemper MF, Srivastava S, King MT, Clarke K, Veech RL and Pawlosky RJ. An ester of β-hydroxybutyrate regulates cholesterol biosynthesis in rats and a cholesterol biomarker in humans. Lipids 2015; 50: 1185-1193.

Murray AJ, Knight NS, Cole MA, Cochlin LE, Carter E, Tchabanenko K, Pichulik T, Gulston MK, Atherton HJ, Schroeder MA, Deacon RAMJ, Kashiwaya Y, King MT, Pawlosky R, Rawlins JNP, Tyler DJ, Griffin JL, Robertson J, Veech RL, Clarke K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance. FASEB J 2016; 30: 2689-97.

Newport MT, VanItallie TB, Kashiwaya Y, King MT and Veech RL. A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s Dement. 2015; 11: 99-103.

Pawlosky RJ, Kemper MF, Kashiwaya Y, King MT, Mattson MP, Veech RL. Effects of a dietary ketone ester on hippocampal glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids in a 3xTgAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem. 2017; 141: 195-207.

Shivva V, Cox PJ, Clarke K, Veech RL, Tucker IG and Duffull SB. The population pharmacokinetics of D-β-hydroxybutyrate following administration of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate. AAPS J. 2016; 18: 678-88.

Shivva V, Tucker IG, Duffull SB. An in silico knockout model for gastrointestinal absorption using a systems pharmacology approach: Development and application for ketones. PLoS ONE 2016; 11: e0163795.

Srivastava S, Kashiwaya Y, King MT, Baxa U, Tam J, Niu G, Chen X, Clarke K, Veech RL. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. FASEB J. 2012; 26: 2351-2362.

Stubbs BJ, Cox PJ, Evans RD, Santer P, Miller JJ, Faull OK, Magor-Elliott S, Hiyama S, Stirling M and Clarke K. On the metabolism of exogenous ketones in humans. Front Physiol 2017; Vol. 8: Article 848.

Stubbs BJ, Cox PJ, Evans RD, Cyranka M, Clarke K and de Wet H. A ketone ester drink lowers human ghrelin and appetite. Obesity (In press).

Vandoorne T, De Smet S, Ramaekers M, Van Thienen R, De Bock K, Clarke K, Hespel P. Intake of a ketone ester drink during recovery from exercise promotes mTORC1 signalling but not glycogen resynthesis in human muscle. Front Physiol 2017; Vol. 8: Article 310.

Cox PJ and Clarke K. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism. Extreme Physiol Med 2014; 3: 17-26.

Cox PJ and Clarke K. Ketone bodies. In: Castell LM, Stear SJ, Burke LM eds. Nutritional supplements in sport, exercise and health: An A-Z guide. Routledge 2015, pp. 166-170.

Curtis W, Kemper M, Miller A, Pawlosky R, King MT, Veech RL. Mitigation of damage from reactive oxygen species and ionizing radiation by ketone body esters. In: Ketogenic Diet and Metabolic Therapies: Expanded Roles in Health and Disease. Boison D, Masino SA, Eds. Oxford University Press 2016; pp. 254-270.

Veech RL, Bradshaw PC, Clarke K, Curtis W, Pawlosky R, King MT. Ketone bodies mimic the life span extending properties of caloric restriction. IUBMB Life 2017; 69:305-314.

Veech RL, King MT. Alzheimer’s disease: Causes and Treatment. In: Ketogenic Diet and Metabolic Therapies: Expanded Roles in Health and Disease. Masino SA, Ed. Oxford University Press 2016; pp. 231-253.

Veech RL, Valeri CR and VanItallie TB. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore provides a key to the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury. IUBMB Life 2012; 64: 203–207.

Veech RL. Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription. J. Lipid Res 2014; 55: 2004-2006.

Veech RL. Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2013;1302: 42-48.
The Future

ΔG® is a highly effective means of increasing metabolic efficiency, so there may be many potential health benefits beyond enhanced endurance and faster recovery following exercise. Our research will focus on ΔG®'s effects on weight management, anxiety, traumatic injury, cancer, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
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ΔG® and DeltaG® are registered trademarks of TΔS® Ltd. Contact Professor Kieran Clarke, TdeltaS Limited, 30 Upper High Street, Thame, Oxfordshire OX9 3EZ United Kingdom E-mail: kieran.clarke@dpag.ox.ac.uk
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